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Special Report on Marijuana
Part 5: Glossary & References

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Posted On: <Date Posted>          Updated On: October 14, 2002
© Terence T. Gorski, 2001


Addiction: A chronic, relapsing disease characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and abuse and by long-lasting chemical changes in the brain.

Cannabinoids: Chemicals that help control mental and physical processes when produced naturally by the body and that produce intoxication and other effects when absorbed from marijuana.

Carcinogen: Any substance that causes cancer.

Dopamine: A brain chemical, classified as a neurotransmitter, found in regions of the brain that regulate movement, emotion, motivation, and pleasure.

Hippocampus: An area of the brain crucial for learning and memory.

Hydrocarbon: Any chemical compound containing only hydrogen and carbon.

Psychoactive: Having a specific effect on the mind.

THC: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol; the main active ingredient in marijuana, which acts on the brain to produce its effects.

Withdrawal: Symptoms that occur after use of a drug is reduced or stopped.


Adams, I.B., and Martin, B.R. Cannabis: Pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans. Addiction 91:1585-1614, 1996.

Block, R.I., and Ghoneim, M.M. Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition. Psychopharmacology 100(1-2):219-228, 1993.

Brook, J.S.; Balka, E.B.; and Whiteman, M. The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use. American Journal of Public Health 89(10):1549-1554, 1999.

Budney, A.J.; Higgins, S.T.; Radonovich, K.J.; and Novy, P.L. Adding voucher-based incentives to coping skills and motivational enhancement improves outcomes during treatment for marijuana dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 8(6):1051-1061, 2000.

Cimbura, G.; Lucas, D.M.; Bennett, R.C.; and Donelson, A.C. Incidence and toxicological aspects of cannabis and ethanol detected in 1394 fatally injured drivers and pedestrians in Ontario (1982-1984). Journal of Forensic Science 35(5):1035-1041, 1990.

Cimbura, G.; Lucas, D.M.; Bennett, R.C.; Warren, R.A.; and Simpson, H.M. Incidence and toxicological aspects of cannabis and ethanol detected in 484 fatally injured drivers and pedestrians in Ontario. Journal of Forensic Science 27(4):855-867, 1982.

Chan, G.C.K.; Hinds, T.R.; Impey, S.; and Storm, D.R. Hippocampal neurotoxicity of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Neuroscience 18(14)5322-5332, 1998.

ElSohly, M.A.; Ross, S.A.; Mehmedic, Z.; Arafat, R.; Yi, B.; and Banahan, B. Potency trends of delta-9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated marijuana from 1980-1997. Journal of Forensic Sciences 45(1):24-30, 2000.

Ford, D.E.; Vu, H.T.; and Anthony, J.C. Marijuana use and cessation of tobacco smoking in adults from a community sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 67:243-248, 2002.

Fried, P.A. Prenatal exposure to marijuana and tobacco during infancy, early and middle childhood: Effects and an attempt at synthesis. Archives of Toxicology Supplement 17:233-260, 1995.

Green, B.E., and Ritter, C. Marijuana use and depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 41(1):40-49, 2000.

Haley, N.R.; Iwuc, P.S.; Ogilvie, L.M.; and Carria, L.R. Motor vehicle fatalities in Rhode Island (FY 1990-1991): A report on driver impairment. R I Med 75(8):397-400, 1992.

Haney, M.; Ward, A.S.; Comer, S.D.; Foltin, R.W.; and Fischman, M.W. Abstinence symptoms following smoked marijuana in humans. Psychopharmacology 141:395-404, 1999.

Heishman, S.J.; Arasteh, K.; and Stitzer, M.L. Comparative effects of alcohol and marijuana on mood, memory, and performance. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 58:97-101, 1997.

Johnston, L.D.; O'Malley, P.M.; and Bachman, J.G. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2001. Volume I: Secondary School Students. NIH Pub. No. 02-5106. Bethesda, MD: NIDA, NIH, DHHS, 2002.

Lynskey, M., and Hall, W. The effects of adolescent cannabis use on educational attainment: A review. Addiction 95(11):1621-1630, 2000.

Mason, A.P., and McBay, A.J. Ethanol, marijuana, and other drug use in 600 drivers killed in single-vehicle crashes in North Carolina, 1978-1981. Journal of Forensic Science 29(4):987-1026, 1984.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Notes. Marijuana and alcohol combined severely impede driving performance. Annals of Emergency Medicine 35(4):398-399, 2000.

Office of Applied Studies. Emergency Department Trends From the Drug Abuse Warning Network, Final Estimates 1994-2001. DAWN Series D-21. DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 02-3635. Rockville, MD: SAMHSA, 2002.

Office of Applied Studies. Results from the 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Volume II. Technical Appendices and Selected Data Tables. NHSDA Series H-18. DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 02-3759. Rockville, MD: SAMHSA, 2002.

Pope, H.G.; Gruber, A.J.; Hudson, J.I.; Huestis, M.A.; and Yurgelun-Todd, D. Neuropsychological performance in long-term cannabis users. Archives of General Psychiatry 58(10):909-915, 2001.

Pope, H.G., and Yurgelun-Todd, D. The residual cognitive effects of heavy marijuana use in college students. Journal of the American Medical Association 272(7):521-527, 1996.

Stephens, R.S.; Roffman, R.A.; and Curtin, L. Comparison of extended versus brief treatments for marijuana use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68(5):898-908, 2000.

Tashkin, D.P. Pulmonary complications of smoked substance abuse. Western Journal of Medicine 152:525-530, 1990.


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