The Addiction Web Site of Terence T. Gorski

Best Practice Principles  - Articles  - Publications

Mission & Vision -  Clinical Model - Training & Consulting

Home - What's New - Site Map - Search - Book Reviews

 Links - Daily News Review 

  Research Databases  - Leading Addiction Websites -

Special Focus:  Mental Health, Substance Abuse, & Terrorism

History of Mind Control

GORSKI-CENAPS Web Publications

Training & Consultation --- Books, Audio, & Video Tapes
 www.tgorski.com ----- www.cenaps.com ----- www.relapse.org
Gorski-CENAPS, 17900 Dixie Hwy, Homewood, IL 60430, 708-799-5000 

Posted On: November 16, 2002          Updated On: November 18, 2002
İ Terence T. Gorski, 2001

CKLN-FM Mind Control Series -- Part 6

The History of Mind Control:
What we can prove and what we can't

Lecture by Dr. Alan Scheflin

This was given in 1995 in Dallas, Texas

From the Ryerson CKLN FM (88.1 in Toronto) Mind Control Series
CKLN-FM 88.1 Toronto the International Connection
Producer/interviewer Wayne Morris

<Go To The Original lecture Series Transcripts On the Internet>

<Go To Other Articles On Mind Control>

Many of the images in this article are from 
The Psychology Museum and Research center at Oklahoma State University 

Mind control is a valid subject.  We can prove a good deal of its history and its postulates.  The subject of mind control has validation across several centuries, and especially a rich history in this century. 

Possession, Exorcism, & Mind Control

The earliest historical evidence of mind control techniques can be traced to a practice known as trephining.  This practice involves cutting a hole in the skull of a person who is suspected of being possessed by evil spirits.  The hole in the skull was believed to release the evil spirits.  In some forms of trephining, an instrument was inserted into the skull to scare out the spirit.  This procedure was literally an early form of lobotomy.  Trephining may be the first historically known treatment for severe mental illness and one of the first psychosurgery procedures designed to change socially unacceptable behaviors.  Many trephined skulls have been recovered from civilizations throughout the world giving evidence that trephining was widely practiced by many ancient civilizations.  

Trephining is important to us, because it  was a medical procedure based upon the belief in possession.  It seems to me that in many ways, these notions have come back again in the twentieth century, and so I thought it appropriate to start with them now. 

The possession idea carried through well into the Middle Ages, when possession theories of mental illness were prevalent, and cures based on them were equally as prevalent and indeed necessary. 

This is an illustration of medieval Moon Madness, and some of the dancing episodes that went throughout the Middle Ages. The treatment of choice was exorcism which you seen an illustration of here, if you look all the way over on the left, the woman being held by a group of men, there's a devil coming out of her head. This was, of course, the early equivalent of Multiple Personality Disorder and the notion of possession theory, the body being inhabited by other beings, is an important aspect of dissociation. The theory may have changed somewhat, but there is certainly a direct history from the possession ideas to the dissociation ideas that we experience today. 

The first real treatise in mind control, which brought together possession ideas in to a textbook, is THE MALLEUS MALEFICARUM, which is written in 1484, it's called THE WITCH'S HAMMER, and I was interested to note that in the latest issue of, I think, NEWSWEEK MAGAZINE, with the cover story on the brain, there is a one-page description of THE MALLEUS MALEFICARUM by a novelist who wrote a woman's novel based on its terms. 

THE MALLEUS was used as a bible for witch-hunting, and it tells you how to identify witches and how especially to interrogate them, and how to cure them--the cure usually being killing them.  

The value of THE MALLEUS, I think, is two-fold. It is probably the second known text book in history on cross-examination techniques, the first one being THE PLATONIC DIALOGUES. And so, we get in THE MALLEUS, a systemization of the knowledge of how to do interrogations to lead people to give confessions that you want them to give, and so in the history of mind control it plays a very important role, because this is the work that was used by the inquisitors throughout the Middle Ages and thereafter to obtain confessions and indeed false confessions. 

THE MALLEUS itself then was read by police departments centuries later and used as the beginning of the development of police manual. Let me jump ahead a couple of centuries until last century, the 1800's, with the birth of psychiatry, and it perhaps is no surprise that there is a common link to possession theories and the birth of psychiatry, in that most psychiatric treatments had the same elements of violence that we see in THE MALLEUS and that we see in the exorcism, and beyond that. It's the cast-the-demons-out.

Psychiatric Treatments Based On Possession Paradigms

It was beliefs that these people were inhabited by demons, and that in order to get those demons out exorcism was replaced either with violence or with severe restraint.   I'm going to run through a series of slides here, all taken from psychiatric text books, on the way in which people were treated. 

This one is an individual who was chained to a wall, and this is a form of a straitjacket as you can see, where a person is tied directly to a drain pipe in the wall. 

William Morris , chained in Bedlam

Here are pictures of an early version of the straightjacket itself, a chair incorporating a straightjacket restraint, and another commonly used psychiatric restraint. 

At the Lunatics' Tower, Vienna. At the Lunatics' Tower, Vienna. At the Lunatics' Tower, Vienna.

Shock Treatments

HydrotherapyA century ago they also had something that we tend to consider as modern but is not -- shock treatment. The shock done, however, was usually a different form than electricity since they had not yet invented electricity. This is a water shock treatment, and another version of it appears here, where an individual is left blind-folded on the platform, suddenly the platform falls from beneath him and he's dumped into a bucket of ice cold water. This was intended to be shocking.  

<See Other Pictures of Early Psychiatric Treatment On The Internet>

Another form is noise shock treatment which involved firing a cannon behind somebody without them knowing that it was going to happen. Again, the idea was to use a form of violent cure because of a theory of violent possession. 

Interestingly enough, even electric shock treatment has a history in antiquity. It did not... We did not need the development of electricity to have electric shock. The ancient Egyptians used to take a torpedo fish and slap it on the forehead of people who were possessed, and the fish would discharge an electric current, and that's the earliest record of electroshock treatment. 

This is a device that nobody can ever guess the importance of. It's an ovary compressor, and I'll leave it to your imagination to, to consider how painful it must be to have experienced it. 

Seclusion & Sensory Deprivation

Seclusion in its worst form is the Wooden Crib or Restraining Bed. This is a form of containment in which you can see that person is totally strapped into a crib with no way to move. This, however, was not the worst form of restraint. It took a leading psychiatrist to develop that. 

The Crib / Restraining Bed

The Rush Chair or Restraining Chair was also used to limit motion and reduce sensory stimulation by covering the head and blocking vision.

The Rush Chair / Restraining Chair

Another device used to induce a state of shock was the rotating chair. A person could last only a few seconds in this chair without becoming nauseous and eventually losing consciousness.  Below are three different versions of the rotating chair that were used in the early days of psychiatric treatment.

Circulating Swing Whirling Bed Rotating Chair

And then there was the tranquilizing chair, all of these devices were used in the late #1800's, the last two of them were developed by Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration Of Independence, and his face appears on the seal of the American Psychiatric Association as its founder. It's not my desire to criticize psychiatry here, but rather to make the point, in terms of mind control, that we began studying the human mind and mental illness with a theory of possession and a theory of cure based on violence, and from that we'll see the various refinements. 

Perhaps the first of the refinements, and the one that's notoriously wrong, was the leading psychological theory of the 1800's, and that is phrenology -- that you can measure the exterior of the brian or rather of the skull in order to understand the interior of the mind, and this is an illustration of a phrenologist's chart, the theory being that there is a direct correlation between a person's characteristics as an individual, and their skulls and the lumps and other aspects to be found on the skull. 

The theory, of course, is completely wrong, but it occupied a good deal of the 1800's and was the leading theory of psychology at that time. It led to further variants in terms of face- reading. The importance of the theory is not that it was wrong, but rather that it led people to begin to try to measure internal states. And so, from an erroneous theory people began to look inside the brain to see how you can find external correlations with the brain, and we come across what I think is the great paradox in all of healing, and that is that the more you learn how to cure people the more you learn how to harm them, and for every step forward in relieving mental illness you can take a step backwards in causing it

And so, for people whose interest is in control of the mind, their data comes from how to help the mind, and so there is no step forward that does not involve equally, in the hands of malevolent people, a step backwards. 

Hypnosis

The idea of mind control turned more serious however and in our concerns more contemporary when we come to hypnosis. This is Hypnos, the Greek god of sleep. Of course, hypnosis is not sleep and so the name itself is deceptive as to the mechanism of hypnosis.  

Hypnosis began the modern era with Mesmer, whose theories were also wrong.  they were not only wrong, they were also plagiarised, on inter planetary or planetary magnetism affecting mental states and so forth. 

What Mesmer really happened upon without realizing it was the beginning of the idea of the laws of suggestion, and what he did is set up what is called a baquet, and you can see here it's an oak tub from which iron bars extrude, and the French nobility would come and touch the iron bars which were in the tub, the tub was filled with water with iron filings, and people would then have convulsive states which were pleasant enough for them to repeat quite frequently. Some slides of the baquette... 

This was high society, not only treatment but also entertainment. You can see at the left a woman has fainted. That was quite common. Here's a colour slide of the same kind of event.

Mesmer was, his work was studied by a Presidential Commission or rather a King's Commission. King Louis XVI appointed a special commission to study Mesmerism. At the time it was receiving rave notices from the public and condemnation from medical societies. Here's a cartoon of the time of animal magnetism, you can see the animal doing the hypnosis, and another cartoon debunking animal magnetism. The report that was issued on the work of Mesmer's student des Lond, was highly critical. The commission found that there was nothing to the interplanetary theories and the magnetic theories, but they were then forced to explain why Mesmer got so many cures, and they attributed the cures to the power of imagination, and rather than study the power of imagination as a way to cure individuals, the commission left the issue alone, and it took a hundred years for people to pick up that essential point, that manipulation of the imagination could be used to manipulate the mind

The commission also issued a secondary report that was stamped "eyes only" for the King's eyes only, and in that report the commissioners said that there was an aspect of magnetism that was so dangerous that the practice would be stopped at once. It was a menace to morals, that the attraction that developed between the magnetizer and the subject being magnetized was so great that seductions were inevitable, and therefore we have the first inkling of the relationship between hypnosis and hypnotic seduction in this secret report for the King's eyes only. 

Mesmer died in disgrace and in exile after the report appeared, and hypnosis, which was still called animal magnetism at the time, fell into disgrace but not into complete abandonment. It wasn't until about fifty or sixty years later that James Braid, a Scottish physician, coined the term hypnosis and hypnotism, and it wasn't until about fifty years after that that hypnosis begins to be studied in a serious way, and the problems of mind control, using hypnosis as the vehicle again resurface. 

The Victorians were interested in hypnosis 'cause it was fun to be hypnotized. They lacked the joys that we have, such as Geraldo, and so they had to entertain themselves by using hypnosis for their parlour games. And you can see a man here drinking milk out of a saucer on the floor, he had just been hypnotized. And so, stage hypnosis at the turn of the century, from the 1890's to the 1910's and '20's, was one of the most well-known and well-attended and lucrative forms of entertainment. 

Here's a couple of artifacts from that time. Here's a brochure from a stage hypnotism show. Walter Bodey, an English hypnotist, was perhaps one of the most famous of the stage performers. He had a hypnosis and electrical show. You can see on there that, a statement, "The real Trilby," going back to Svengali. We'll return to that in a moment. This is James Bodey. He lives on in history for a reason people don't remember any more, and that is, he was the inspiration for an extremely young comic who got his start by mimicking Bodey, and here's the young comic, here's the two of them together, Bodey on the right and Charley Chaplain on the left. And so, Charley Chaplain's career began by studying Bodey's mechanisms and his mannerisms on stage, and then making comedy of them. 

During the Victorian era people's exposure to hypnosis was not only as a form of entertainment, but it seemed like a form of mind control as well. You could get people to do anything that you asked of them. You could have them be suspended between two chairs, you could even stand on them when they were suspended between two chairs, and you could do a lot worse as well. If you're sensitive, please don't watch the next two slides. This is an iron bar held by eyelets, put into the eye lids of a subject, and this a stage hypnotist in Georgia, and as if that isn't bad enough to suspend an iron bar from the eye lids, he took it one step further and then pulled a young woman on roller skates. So, it's not always fun to be hypnotized, and some people have taken the idea of stage hypnosis, it seems to me, far beyond where it should be entitled to go. 

One of those people is Barry Konnikoff, who traffics under the name of Potentials Unlimited. In one of his later... He has self-hypnosis tapes which were available all over the place. I've heard he's gone bankrupt now and I certainly hope that's true. In his later round of tapes he argued that women who have been sexually abused or raped deserve it because of what they did in prior lives. Now, the First Amendment perhaps protects that. On the other hand, it is... There aren't words that would describe a person who would make money out of that kind of a theory, so I won't waste our time on him. 

I want to get back to the central theme of mind control, which starts with Jean Martin Charcot, who was the foremost neurologist of the time. While the stage hypnotists were persuading people that minds could be controlled by hypnosis, the professionals were learning hypnosis as well, and they were learning it largely from a small group of people, the most influential of whom was Charcot. 

Charcot, as the greatest neurologist in Europe at the time, was frequently visited by kings and princes and certainly all of the most elite of the medical profession from around the world, and in his clinic at La Sault Petrier in Paris, he would demonstrate hypnotic phenomena. He would, in his demonstrations, induce neurotic symptoms in people. People who came in with an inability to move one limb, in hypnosis would be able to move that limb, but he would transfer the neurotic symptom to the other limb, and so he could create and destroy and eliminate and transpose neurotic conditions, and this was a remarkable demonstration which impressed a number of people in the audience, but his theories were at odds with his major contemporaries, le Beau who was on the left and HipoHypolee Bernheim who was, on the right. 

There was in France at the time, this second school of thought about hypnosis. Charcot believed that people who could be hypnotized were hysterics and that hypnosis was a form of hysterical dissociation. Bernheim, based on the work of le Beau and his own work thereafter, believed that hypnosis was a form of suggestion, and that the manipulation of suggestion did not need a former neurotic condition. Here's Bernheim. Bernheim and Charcot often appeared against each other in a series of criminal cases that appeared throughout France, on the issue of the anti- social production of crime with hypnosis. 

A person who studied from both of these people and was influenced by both of them was Sigmond Freud. This is a picture of him on his wedding day, and a better-known portrait of him in his old age, and then the infamous couch. In his London office over the couch Freud had a picture of Charcot's demonstration, doing the demonstration that I showed you a few slides back. Let me get to that. This was the, a picture that hung over the couch in Freud's office in England. 

Freud was very much influenced by the hypnosis theories, and worked with hypnosis for a year, but then abandoned it, and it wasn't clear why he did abandon hypnosis. Some theorists have argued, and I think correctly, that he was a lousy hypnotist, and that seemed to be true, and he couldn't, as a result, get deep enough trances to have effect on his patients. 

Other theorists have argued, and Freud's own writings tend to support a secondary hypothesis, and that is that Freud was scared of the seductive power of hypnosis, that the ability to move people into altered states of consciousness gave a feeling to the hypnotist of some such omnipotence that it was in itself seductive. And Freud wrote that in one of his patients, as soon as the hypnotic encounter had ended she jumped up and threw her arms around him and hugged and kissed him, and he did not attribute that to his handsome demeanour. He said it must be some other force at work and it so frightened him, he said, that he never used hypnosis again. And I think that he's harking back to the Mesmer Commission's noticing that there is a manipulative power in hypnosis that the subject may not be able to resist, but also the hypnotizer may not be able to resist as well. 

Retroactive Hallucinations - False Memory Syndrome

Bernheim, by the way, and Albert Muhl, a German hypnotist in the 1880's and the 1890's, had already given the world the false memory syndrome. They called it retroactive hallucinations at the time, and they wrote quite openly in their works that they were concerned that through the power of suggestion you could create an impenetrable witness for a court of law. That by hypnotizing somebody, you could induce them to tell a false story, that story would be impervious to cross- examination, because the individual would sincerely believe in the truth of what he or she was saying, and therefore you would never be able to effectively cross- examine that person, because they would continually insist on the truth of what they were reporting. 

And so, by the early 1890's the phenomenon of false memory had already been noted and been written about extensively, and its application for courts of law had already been written about. There is absolutely nothing new in the false memory issue. It is simply a failure to read the literature from a hundred years ago. What's more important is, where are we gonna go from now with false memory, and I think the answer is where we have already come from a hundred years ago. 

Early Efforts At Mind Control

The next step beyond false memory was the beginning to use these techniques deliberately for purpose of mind control. And essentially the first steps are taken by A. R. Luria in his institute in Moscow. Luria reasoned that if you can get people to have false confessions with hypnosis, you probably could build affective complexes on those false confessions. In other words, you could not only get people to report things that never happened, you could get them to experience the entire range of emotions affiliated with those events. 

And so, Luria and his colleagues in Moscow in the 1920's began doing research on developing neuroses built upon the implantation of false memories. That work was replicated in the 1930's by Milton Erikson, Lawrence Cubey, and others, who verified the truth of what Luria was reporting. 

Moscow Show Trials

Luria's work was not merely academic. It had its operational uses in the next decade in the Moscow Show Trials, which are an extremely important historical event for our purposes. During the Moscow Show Trials, Stalin purged his old enemies. Now, one way you can do that is simply have them disappear, or you could have public executions. It is generally true throughout histories that regimes try to improve their own legitimacy by discrediting their predecessors. Stalin's way of doing it was to put on trial all his former friends, and what was different about the Moscow Show Trials is that when these defendants went on trial they not only confessed to a series of crimes and sins, they could not possibly have committed, but they begged to be shot as enemies of The State. 

Some recent books on the prosecutor's role in programming during the Moscow Show Trials have added some new information to our understanding of them. It was at this point that American intelligence agencies began to take notice of the mind control potential that seemed to be apparent from the Moscow Show Trials. The actual paper record though is hard to trace from the 1930's, easier to trace from the 1940's, and the trial that ultimately set the C.I.A. off on its investigation of mind control was the trial of Cardinal Mindszenty.

The Trial of Cardinal Mindszenty

Mindszenty was a staunch anti-Communist who was then arrested by the Communists and put in the Androsi Street Prison in Hungary. Six months later he was put on trial. As his predecessors a decade before, he confessed to crimes and sins that could not possibly have been true. 

These are a series of slides showing him at trial. 

The experience of Mindszenty was so frightening to American intelligence agencies, that they began to investigate whether or not the Soviets possessed some new form of mind control unknown to The West.

Here two stories develop that are both true and completely contradictory. In secret C.I.A. files you will find both of these stories validated. On the one hand the C.I.A. argued that it was afraid that it was losing the war for control of the mind, and that the Soviets had developed this new, sophisticated psychology or whatever to control the way people think and act, and that America had to catch up. We were on the defensive now and we had to, a lot of work that had to be done. One the other hand, in a document that was extremely highly classified, eyes-only for the Director of the C.I.A.'s Eyes-only, it turned out that there was a spy in the Androsi Street Prison who was reporting back to the C.I.A. everything that was happening to Mindszenty, and this Eyes-only report which I've read is a wonderful document. It details exactly what happened to Mindszenty. It names the Soviet hypnotists who did the work and the drugs that they used to assist them in that work. It's a step-by-step manual for the programming of Mindszenty. And what's particularly interesting is if you read Cardinal Mindszenty's autobiography of the events, he really doesn't know what happened to him, and at this point the C.I.A. had a better knowledge of the programming of Mindszenty than he had of his own programming. And so, on the one hand the Soviets, the C.I.A. knew everything that the Soviets were doing, yet on the other hand they were reporting that they were afraid that they were losing the war, and I think both of those stories are true, though they're contradictory, and both are supported by secret C.I.A. documents. 

Meanwhile, a related event begins to happen. In the late 1940's, Edward Hunter in 1949 for the first time coins the term, "brain washing," and writes a book on it. This is one of the two books that Hunter wrote. It turned out that Hunter was an O.S.S. and later C.I.A. propagandist, and the word brainwashing was particularly useful because American prisoners of war were starting to give confessions of using germ warfare during the Korean War, and America needed a way of stopping that kind of propaganda, and the term brainwashing, which had been coined by Hunter to explain the thought control programme in Communist China, proved a useful vehicle. 

This is a picture of Edward Hunter. I was able to do one of the last interviews with him before his death. In the deep literature on brainwashing, the more academic literature on brainwashing, his view of it is called The Robot Theory, the notion that with brainwashing techniques you can turn somebody into an automaton. 

The Robot Theory of brainwashing is not the only theory of brainwashing, but it is the most flamboyant and it's also the most frightening. The idea of brainwashing then in the 1950's became the object of a lot of study and books like IN EVERY WAR BUT ONE, people who had actually gone through the experience wrote about what had happened to them and researchers like Biederman in books like this were reporting what happened to American prisoners of war and other prisoners of war. 

In Hawaii, an American camp was set up to be a mock prisoner of war camp to use the techniques that were being used of brainwashing. This an illustration from that camp. These are actually all Americans, but it's a simulated exercise in brainwashing because Americans were searching for a way to inoculate our soldiers if they should get captured and put through a brainwashing experience. Would it have been possible for us to inoculate them previously so that the brainwashing would not take? 

The Sensory Deprivation Experiments

While the brainwashing studies were going on, another development was happening simultaneously important to the development of mind control, and these are the sensory deprivation experiments that began in Canada with Donald Hebb and others. It was... Hebb's original work was essentially on what's called highway trance, the phenomena that people who will drive on highways in long stretches of road that's pretty monotonous will to into trance. And this is a form of sensory deprivation.  If it's dark at night, there's a long road, there's no scenery, you probably all have had the experience of realizing that suddenly you've driven a couple of miles but have no memory for that couple of miles passing, or you've gotten very drowsy. 

The phenomenon of sensory deprivation became the subject of a good deal of study in the 1950's. What would happen to the mind if it were deprived of sensory input, since the mind needs sensory input the way the body needs food? 

In a series of studies, this is on isolation, inside the black room, students across the country in Canada and other places were put in a black room. Here's an illustration of it. There's essentially almost no sensory input at all. What happens to the mind? 

Floatation tanks and other ways of decreasing sensory input, all had the effect of causing the mind when it is deprived of sensory input to throw out a hallucinated world in order to get input back from that hallucinated world. And people, in fact, kept in isolation too long could become psychotic.

Books studying the phenomena of isolation and also in conjunction with manipulating people's mind through techniques of brainwashing began to appear. THE BRAIN BENDERS is one, THE BATTLE FOR THE MIND by William Sergent is the foremost British book on the subject. Robert J. Lifton's study, THOUGHT REFORM AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF TOTALISM is the classic work on the Chinese thought reform programme. Edgar Shein's book on coercive persuasion on the Americans taken prisoner in the Korean War, RAPE OF THE MIND by Mirrileau, another classic. 

As all of this was happening, this was what you could call a form of coercive persuasion as Shein had suggested, but there was another event that was occurring simultaneously. The 1950's is, in many ways, the birth of mind control experimentation, because you have the brainwashing issue, the hypnosis issues, the isolation and sensory deprivation studies, and you now get the next stream of research, which involves obedience to authority studies

Social Pressure & Conformity

I mentioned the other night Solomon Ashe's studies on opinions and social pressure, and what Ashe did at Yale was the simplest of experiments on conformity. He drew on a blackboard a line that was one foot long and another line directly under it, parallel to it, that was two feet long. He then got six or seven people in a room, all of whom except one had been bribed, and the last one had no knowledge of the bribing of the others. He then asked them in order which one was the shorter line, and to the horror of the one who was not bribed, everyone reported that the two-foot line was the shorter line, and it was visually obvious that that was untrue, but everybody else in the room was reporting it as true. 

What Ashe discovered was that the subject would report seeing the longer line as the shorter line, that he would conform to peer pressure. Cynics dismissed it on the grounds that it just showed the stupidity of Yale graduates, but that was not a sufficient scientific explanation, and as Walter reported the other night the experiments were done in the Navy and other places as well. 

I want to distinguish this group of work from the others that I've just reported on. Here we're talking about a form of manipulation of the mind that does not involve physical coercion. In the brainwashing work, in the isolation work, there is a form of physical intimidation that involves taking over the body and controlling the body, controlling all of the input in the mind and so forth, and so this is... A person in that situation that he or she is in that situation, that they are captive in some way. 

With this kind of experiment, we have what I call conversational persuasion. This is the beginning of the attempt to develop theories of social influence on free- standing populations where people are not aware that they are being held captive in any way, and indeed they're not. 

The next step along the lines of obedience research, and some ways the most frightening, is the work done by Milgram and his book OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY. If you're not familiar with Milgram's work I'll give you a very brief explanation of it. 

Milgram wanted to test the hypothesis that people in Germany, good people in Germany, during the Nazi regime, were manipulated in a way to do evil, or let me restate that, Milgrim wondered why so many good people in Nazi Germany could allow such evil to happen around them knowingly. And his thesis was not the idea that there's something inherent in the German character, but rather that there's something inherent in people, and he was interested in showing whether or not if a Hitler-type character arose in the United States, that person would be able to get good people to do evil in this country. And so, he built a box, I don't have a slide of it here, he built a box with thirty switches, just little light switches, and the thirty switches were in fifteen-volt increments. They were marked in fifteen-volt increments. As you moved over towards the right of the box there began to be some writing which said, "Caution! Danger! Extreme danger!," and the last group of switches were marked in triple red X's. Now, he then put an advertisement, again this is at Yale, so you know, maybe the cynics are right. He put an advertisement in the local New Haven newspaper for people to volunteer for the experiment. People came in and they were told that the experiment involved pain and learning, and that they would be the teachers, and that there was a student and that they could see the student, and the student they were told was hooked up to an electric grid, and every time that... The teacher was to give the student a question, and every time the student gave a wrong answer one of the switches was to be pushed. When Milgrim and his associates talked about the experiment, they concluded that nobody would push all the switches, and most people would stop pushing the switches about halfway through, because each switch was intended to deliver a higher voltage shock. The subject as about half the switches were pulled, would increasingly flinch and then scream and then yell, would then say, "I don't want to do this any more," would then say, "I have a heart condition! Please stop!," and then would refuse to answer any question and would slump over. If the teacher balked at pushing the next switch, there was an experimenter there in a long, white laboratory coat with a clipboard and a pencil, who was instructed to say first, "Continue," and then, "Please continue," and then, "You must go on with the experiment," and finally, "I will take responsibility." 

What Milgram discovered is that the overwhelming number of people pushed all of the switches, and that the simple reinforcement of saying, "I will take responsibility," or that there was an experiment going on, was sufficient to allow them to do that. Now after Milgram's experiments were replicated in other places, and what eventually evolved is that the horror of what he was proving was so ghastly that the scientific literature turned away from it and instead focused on the ethics of doing that kind of experiment. Because after all, what he was doing was taking people from the street and not telling them that they were what he was studying. They thought he was studying the subject. 

A lot of these people as you can imagine had severe emotional reaction once they realized that they had shocked somebody with a heart condition on a machine that went beyond extreme danger to triple X's in red, and so the ethics of doing that type of work then created a movement in universities and other places for institutional reviews boards, etc., and the research can't be done any more, and what Milgram was proving, how easy it is to manipulate people by the simplest of commands, was no longer being studied and certainly not in that manner. 

Books like COMPLIANT BEHAVIOUR: BEYOND OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY, were being written to increase and replicate and extend the work of Milgrim, and here's a report called CONFORMITY, COMPLIANCE AND CONVERSION, from the Air Force in I think around the 1950's, an Air Force report using Milgrim's work in Air Force conditioning. 

Let's go back and talk some more about hypnosis since it plays a central in the rest of the development of mind control. 

There are a lot of things about the subject of mind control, that I'm not going to be talking about in this presentation.  I'm not going to be talking to you about the physiological aspects of mind control, which includes the lobotomy, psycho- surgery, and electrical-stimulation-of-the-brain literature.  I won't be talking about the pharmacological aspects of mind control, which includes the use of drugs and botanicals and chemicals for mind control.  These areas of mind control are vast, but in this presentation we're just concentrating here on the psychological aspects of mind control. 

Hypnotic Seduction

The notion of hypnotic seduction had been noticed in the secret report to the King in France, it had been noticed by Freud in his work, and it had been noticed by many others -- a series of slides on hypnotic seduction. The idea of hypnotic seduction got, I think, its greatest impetus in an #1894 book called TRILBY. And this is illustration from it with the infamous Svengali as the hypnotist, and to this day the portrait of Svengali as a hypnotist is almost as powerful as Sherlock Holmes as a detective. It's almost the stereotype of the field. 

Trilby, today, would be a No. #1. best-seller, the equivalent of a No. #1. best-seller, and even bigger. It was probably the first block-buster novel. It was published in a magazine in serial form, and after the first issue appeared the magazine had to print an additional one hundred thousand copies because of the desire for people to continue the story. It... The author, George du Maurier, was launched into such public light that he ultimately hid from all, in order to preserve his privacy. He had lecture tours through the United States and Britain. 

Do you remember PATEN PLACE, how huge a novel that was at the time? This was the equivalent and even bigger. The story of TRILBY is the story of a hypnotist who gets total control over the personality of a young woman, and the novel itself I find to be incredibly boring, but the portrait of portrayed of the hypnotist is tremendously exciting and has lived on almost as an icon of the subject itself. There was a town in Florida, and I haven't checked to see whether this is still true, that changed its name to Trilby, and at the centre of town they have Svengali Square. There were TRILBY parties, TRILBY hats, TRILBY clothes. 

It was an enormously popular and influential novel, which introduced people to the idea of the potential for hypnotic seduction, and also even worse. Let me... Since I don't want to dwell on this aspect of mind control, let me sum it up and say that the traditional thinking has been that you cannot get people to do with hypnosis what they would not otherwise do. There is value in that thinking, because it then doesn't encourage people to try, but if you go and talk to the hypnotists who will tell you that and you talk to them in private, they will tell you the opposite story, that within certain parameters you can get people to do things they would otherwise not do, with hypnosis, and that while hypnosis is not a magic wand or a magic potion, it is an effective facilitator for seduction or anti-social conduct. 

There is an increase in court cases of hypnotic seduction now, but I want to turn to the more frightening prospect of using hypnosis for the creation of anti-social crimes. Can you get... "You are in my power, you will do what I tell you." How far can you get control of somebody using hypnosis and forms of social influence? 

This has been the subject of a lot of fiction, just from my library here are some of the books. THE DARKER THE NIGHT, WAS THE HYPNOTIST THE KILLER, SEEING IS BELIEVING, YOUR EYELIDS ARE GROWING HEAVY, MURDER IS SUGGESTIVE, TELEFON, which of course is a movie as well. And there are academic books like HYPNOTISM AND CRIME. Interestingly there has been no major work on the anti- social aspects of hypnosis either in the legal literature or in the psychiatric, hypnotic, or psychological literature for over thirty years. 

1960 is the last time we have a full discussion of the issue of hypnotic coercion, and 1972 was the last time a hypnosis journal directed itself primarily to that issue. The texts suggest that there are cases in which people, through hypnosis, have been induced to commit crimes, but the hypnosis community has been divided as to whether those are pure cases. 

There is what I call the methodological dilemma that arises at this point. If you... Usually the hypnotic encounter requires a certain amount of time and a certain amount of trust, and so hypnosis researchers argue that it's not hypnosis that facilitates either seduction or the production of anti-social acts, rather it is the relationship between the hypnotist and the subject, and therefore hypnosis is not at fault. 

The experimentalists discount any clinical, anecdotal material, because it's not rigorously scientific and therefore can't prove the conclusion of hypnotic coercion. But the experimental literature itself is discounted, because as Albert Muhl wrote a hundred years ago and Martin Orne has written as well, at some level a subject always knows that he or she is participating in an experiment. And so, there is no way to test the validity of the hypothesis, that you can induce through hypnosis anti-social conduct. 

On the other hand, such conduct is produced on a regular basis whatever the explanation. The one place where the studies were done, where there was no fear of ethical violation or legal consequences, was in work done by the Central Intelligence Agency, and since the work has never been fully published, I have an article that will be coming out in THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL HYPNOSIS, on the C.I.A. hypnosis experiments

It's not my function here to criticize the intelligence agencies or to condemn what they have done. I'm instead trying to argue the point that the hypnosis community in general and psychologists and psychiatrists as well, need to know the data that was produced and which still exists in C.I.A. files. If we are going to be accused by the false memory people of using undue suggestion to get people to do things they wouldn't otherwise do, we need to know the limits of those possibilities, and that material is in C.I.A. files, therapists are being sued across the country, they need access to that information to help defend themselves. And so, it is in the spirit of science and in the spirit of protecting therapists and patients, you know, for the good of the country, that I present this material so that we can hope that the full amount of it is ultimately revealed. 

I also must make a caveat. I can only report on information that I've seen, either through my search of C.I.A. files and my interviews with C.I.A. hypnotists and other hypnotists. There may be mistakes in what I present. I cannot correct that unless I have access to all of the material. And so, if I have made a mistake, it is a mistake that comes from not being given the material. 

Of course, I have in good faith worked through the material I have to tell as accurate a story as I know how. The C.I.A. began experimenting as soon as it was born in the late 1940's. The experimentation in mind and behavior control had already begun in the O.S.S. with hypnosis experiments, truth serums, truth tablets, and lethal pills, as well as other kinds of experiments.  It was after the Cardinal Mindszenty episode that the C.I.A. began to really become concerned about the possibility of hypnotic coercion, and let me quote to you from a C.I.A. document at the time. 

This is a February 10, 1951, C.I.A. Top Secret Memo, called DEFENSE AGAINST SOVIET MEDICAL INTERROGATION AND ESPIONAGE TECHNIQUES, "Hypnotism has been reported to have been used in some cases by the Soviets as an adjunct to interrogation. It would be possible for a skilled Soviet operator to lower a prisoner's resistance to questioning, and yet leave him with no specific recollections of having been interrogated. With respect to inducing specific action on the part of a subject by hypnotism, it would be possible to brief a prisoner or other individual, subsequently dispatch him on a mission, and successfully debrief him on his return, without his recollection of the whole proceeding." 

A June 1951 C.I.A.Memo says, "C.I.A. interest is in the specific subject of devising scientific methods for controlling the minds of individuals." And so, in the late 1940's some essentially uncontrolled experimentation was begun by various people within the C.I.A., and a more structured programme was also undertaken which had the name Blue Bird, and that name was then changed to Artichoke, and under Projects Blue Bird and Artichoke the attempt was made to bring together all known knowledge of interrogation techniques, truth serums, polygraphs, and hypnosis, to create essentially an elite interrogation team with facility in all of those endeavours, and have them do the work that would be needed, first of all to protect against infiltration by enemy agents, and also to protect the minds of American agents who might get captured by Communist individuals.

Part 2

 
Wayne Morris:

We have been in the middle of an extended series on mind control here on the International Connection. This is Week #11, and we have heard so far, if you haven't been listening for the last few months a lecture by Dr. Colin Ross and an interview with him about the U.S. government CIA and military use and creating Manchurian Candidates by creating Multlple Personality Disorder. We also heard testimony given at the Human Radiation Hearings ... survivors of this ... and we also heard the story of Ronald Howard Cohen, writer and activist who was abducted and drugged by CIA military. We are hearing this week, a lecture 

Part 2

It is not my function here to criticize the Intelligence Agencies or condemn what they have done. I am instead trying to argue the point that the hypnosis community in general and psychologists and psychiatrists as well need to know the data that was produced and still exists in CIA files. If we are going to be accused by the False Memory people of using undue suggestion to get people to do things they wouldn't otherwise do, we need to know the limits of those possibilities and that material is in CIA files. Therapists are being sued across the country. They need access to that information to help defend themselves. And so, it is in the spirit of science and in the spirit of protecting therapists and patients, and for the good of the country, that I present this material so we can hope that the full amount of it is ultimately revealed.

I also must make a caveat. I can only report on information that I have seen, either through my search of CIA files and my interviews with CIA hypnotists and other hypnotists. There may be mistakes in what I present. I cannot correct that unless I have access to all of the material. If I have made a mistake, it is a mistake that comes from not being given the material because I have in good faith worked through the material I have to tell as accurate a story as I know how.

The CIA began experimenting as soon as it was born in the late 1940's. The experimentation in mind and behavior control had already begun in the OSS with hypnosis experiments, truth serums, truth tablets, lethal pills as well as other kinds of experiments, but it was after the Cardinal Josef Mindszenty episode that the CIA began to really become concerned about the possibility of hypnotic coercion. Let me quote to you from a CIA document at the time.

This is a February 10, 1951 CIA top secret memo called 'Defence Against Soviet Medical Interrogation and Espionage Techniques': "Hypnotism has been reported to have been used in some cases by the Soviets as an adjunct to interrogation. It would be possible for a skilled Soviet operator to lower the prisoner's resistance to questioning yet leave him with no specific recollections of having been interrogated. With respect to inducing specific action on the part of the subject by hypnotism, it would be possible to brief a prisoner or other individual, subsequently despatch him on a mission and successfully debrief him on his return, without his recollection of the whole proceeding." A June, 1951 CIA memo says, "CIA interest is in the specific subject of devising scientific methods of controlling the minds of individuals."

In the late 1940's, some essentially uncontrolled experimentation was begun by various people within the CIA, and a more structured program was also undertaken which had the name BLUEBIRD and that name was then changed to ARTICHOKE, and under projects BLUEBIRD and ARTICHOKE, the attempt was made to bring together all known knowledge of interrogation techniques, truth serums, polygraphs and hypnosis to create essentially an elite interrogation team with facility in all of those endeavours, and have them do the work that would be needed. First of all, to protect against infiltration by enemy agents, and also to protect the minds of American agents who might get captured by Communist individuals.

In the early 1950's, Walter Smith, the Director of Central Intelligence in an EYES ONLY MEMO said he wanted to know the issue in order to know the answer to the question, "...whether effective practical techniques exist whereby an individual can be caused to become subservient to an imposed control, and subsequently that individual be unaware of the event." The purpose of the CIA experiments by the early 1950's was to discover the ways to control the minds of individuals. BLUEBIRD and ARTICHOKE were only one part of it. There were other parts as well.

The CIA's facility in Langley did not exist at that time. They used office buildings throughout the Washington area, and safe houses around the country and throughout the world. Eventually in 1953 we get a new program from the CIA which is the most expansive mind control program in the history of the world. It's genesis begins in 1953 with a speech given by Allen Dulles who was the new CIA Director. In his speech, Dulles said that we were losing control of the battle of the mind, that we were at war with the Soviet Union. He called it brain warfare, and the Soviets possessed knowledge with the United States did not. A top-secret memo two months later in June, 1953 states, "...interrogations of the individuals who had come out of North Korea across the Soviet Union to freedom recently, apparently had experienced a blank period or a period of disorientation while passing through a special zone in Manchuria." By 1953 in other words, the notion of the Manchurian Candidates in almost those exact terms, had been theorized by the CIA. I will come back to that point in a moment, but in Dulles' public speech on April 10, 1953 to Princeton Alumni in Hotsprings, West Virginia, he argued we had to do something to make sure we did not lose the war with the Soviet Union. About a week and a half later, he signed into law what was called MKULTRA. Walter Bowart has speculated, and I think it is a good speculation, that the MK stands for Mind Kontrol, and ULTRA was the code name given to breaking the Japanese and German codes, and so this was the code name given to breaking the code of the human mind. MKULTRA was the umbrella for 149 sub-projects. All of them were under the auspices of Sidney Gottlieb, and later directed by his boss, Richard Helms. The 149 sub-projects -- you can read something about this in government documents. This is a project MKULTRA from a Joint Hearing from the United States Senate and some of the material has been made public by the Congress. Other material has not been made public but the existence of MKULTRA is not a secret, and its contours are known to some extent. Another government document explores the same territory. This one is on biomedical and behavioral research by the government.

The goal of all 149 sub-projects was mind and behavior control. Some of them involved botanical. Some of them involved psychosurgery and electrical stimulation of the brain. 9 of the sub-projects involved hypnosis. Some of the sub-projects involved things like voodoo. One of them involved circumcision to create anxiety and then manipulate the anxiety. Almost anything you could think of and things you wouldn't think of were funded and studied. Maybe more one of the more well known studies, and one of the more notorious is the work that was done by Ewen Cameron in Canada. Cameron was the President of the Canadian Psychiatric Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the World Psychiatric Association. In his work at the Allen Memorial Institute in Montreal he had a theory that sounds unique but actually exists in "Brave New World Revisited" and even goes back to the Ancient Greeks -- his notion was that you could completely erase personality by regressing an individual back to an infantile state - process he called de-patterning. Then you could program that individual with a new personality - a process he called psychic driving. In order to destroy the original personality, Cameron put his subjects to sleep for up to two months, injected them with LSD, mescaline and other psychoactive chemicals, and essentially engaged in a form of regression therapy. Age regression may be a hypnotic phenomenon, but in this sense regression was an actual regression. This was the attempt to manipulate people back to a state of infantilism. These were people who came to him who were depressed ... this was the local psychiatric institute. This is where you went when you needed help. One of the people who came to him, I don't have a slide of her, but I have done some TV shows with her, was the wife of a Member of the Canadian Parliament, Val Orlikow was her name. She is dead now. Val had just had a baby and she was suffering from post-partum depression. This meant she didn't feel she was able to care for her baby, or for herself, and in general she was feeling unequal to the task of wifehood and motherhood, and her husband suggested maybe she could benefit from some psychiatric care, and she thought that was a good idea. They made the mistake of winding up going to Ewen Cameron and Cameron destroyed her life. She along with 10 or 11 other people ultimately sued the Canadian government and the CIA because the CIA contributed funding to Cameron's experiments. SIXTY MINUTES did a show on this that I show from time to time. One of the people went there because he was feeling badly, and he went through the same kind of process, and they later discovered he had a minor skin disease and a single shot of cortisone would have cured it. His life was ruined, and as he put it, "Where do I go for help? I don't trust any psychologists, or psychiatrists or therapists any more after what they did to me, and I know I need their help, but I am programmed to not trust them, so where do I go for relief?"

The experiments have been written about in detail in a number of books. This is the least reliable, Gordon Thomas' "Journey Into Madness". Harder to find, a Canadian book "I Swear By Apollo" is more accurate. Perhaps the best of the books is Anne Collins', "In the Sleep Room". In some ways the most compelling and the most, I wouldn't want to say important, but the one that is most emotional perhaps, is Harvey Weinstein's, "A Father, A Son and the CIA". This is the Canadian edition. There is a slightly revised version printed by the American Psychiatric Press, "Psychiatry and the CIA". Harvey's father was one of those people who was depressed and went into the Allen Memorial Institute as a human being and came out as a vegetable. He never did become a whole human being again. Indeed, it was what happened to his father that led Harvey into psychiatry and Harvey's conclusion is something that should be read by everybody in the mental health field. "After all of the knowledge of the CIA experiments, and the Army experiments and Air Force and Navy experiments have come out, after all of what we know ... NOT A SINGLE RESEARCHER HAS BEEN SUBJECTED TO A SINGLE LAW SUIT OR EVEN CENSURE BY A PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR WORK THAT WAS CLEARLY ILLEGAL AND CLEARLY UNETHICAL, EVEN AT THE TIME. THE MESSAGE MUST BE, IF THERE ARE NO CONSEQUENCES TO DOING THIS KIND OF WORK, THE WORK WILL CONTINUE." And indeed, this is most likely what has happened. Harvey's conclusion is that if the professional organizations are not going to step up and condemn this kind of experimentation, then it will be repeated and other generations will suffer the horror that his family suffered.

Cameron's experiment was simply considered a part of a series of brainwashing tests to regress people back to this infantile state. Now the Greeks had sleep temples that had a similar focus, but modern technology added to Cameron's work. He used a tape loop. He would interview an individual. You have heard about Erikson's "power words" ... Cameron would use words that were important to his patients, and he would program those words in messages that he would construct on tape loops that would be played into their brain one half a million, to a million to a million and a half times ... in fact these people were quite literally "programmed".

In a state of infantilism Cameron wrote that they could endure sensory deprivation indefinitely, whereas most people would crack in about 8 hours, those people could stay there indefinitely. The psychic driving in which the tape loops were used was the attempt to reconstruct the personality and I wondered where such a fiendish idea would have come from and I found it in a 1951 science fiction novel called "The Demolished Man" by Alfred Bester, and if you are a science fiction buff I certainly encourage you to find that book and read it. Basically the theory of the novel is that when somebody commits a crime, that shows a certain boldness that society should appreciate, but it's in the wrong direction. What they do is take criminals to the hospital and they regress them back to infantilism and then they re-build a new personality -- exactly the idea that Cameron was working on with his subject had been written about a few years before he began as a science fiction novel. I won't ever know if he had read that novel, but the studies from his work shows that it did not work and indeed it caused a great deal of pain to a great number of people.

The idea of manipulating people with hypnosis in ways that are effective, and in ways that are quite bizarre, was born in the brain of George Estabrooks. Estabrooks, a very interesting character, was working in Morton Prince's laboratory at Harvard in the 1920's and he had the idea that if you could cure a multiple personality with hypnosis, maybe you could create one with hypnosis. Why in the world would anyone want to create a multiple personality? Estabrooks had the solution. You could create then, a super spy or a super assassin, somebody who would do the bidding of his country and have no knowledge that he was engaged in those acts. Estabrooks said in 1928 that "...my views are somewhat different than most psychologists. I believe the hypnotist's power to be unlimited, or rather only to be limited by his intelligence and his scruples." In the 1920's he went around trying to convince the military to create hypnotically controlled individuals, create a multiple personality and use that one as a courier. They thought he was crazy and ignored him until the Moscow Show Trials, and then they took him seriously, and in the archives of his work at Colgate ... there is a notation that he stopped publishing in the mid-1930's because his work had then become classified. If you read his book, this is Morton Prince's "Dissociation of a Personality" ... the classic work on multiple personality ... if you read Estabrooks' book "Hypnotism" through its various editions, what you discover is that each edition is more assertive about the validity of creating hypnotically programmed couriers and finally in an interview he gave in a local Rhode Island newspaper in 1963, he claims that, "... this is not science fiction, it is fact, I have done it." Working for the FBI and the CIA, he would create a multiple personality, program that personality to be a courier, send that personality somewhere in the world have them return and be amnesic for all of that.

The idea may have originated with Estabrooks but he may not have been the first to actually publish it as such. Writing in "The Psychoanalytic Review" of 1947, Major Harvey Leavitt of the U.S. Army Medical Corps described the hypnotic creation of a secondary personality, "... hypnotically induced automatic writing was established early in the course of treatment as a means of expeditiously gaining access to unconscious material. After this procedure as utilized for a time, a hypnotic secondary personality was produced by suggesting that the writing was under control of a certain part of his personality unaware to him." Leavitt then said that he created another personality in direct contrast to the one already established so he could work the two created personalities off against one another. He concluded, "... regardless of whether the production of multiple personalities by means of hypnosis could be construed as additional proof that hypnosis is an artificially induced hysteria or whether the multiple personalities were artificial entities resulting from direct suggestions ... there exists a close relationship with personalities spontaneously arising in hysterical dissociation. The importance of producing multiple personalities experimentally lies in the fact that certain elements of the original personality may be isolated which manifest a minimum of censorship influences and thus may serve as helpful ajuncts in hypno- analysis."

That was not the purpose for the intelligence agencies in working with the idea of creating a multiple personality. The story of the intelligence agencies creating multiple personalities to use as couriers and assassins may have begun with Estabrooks, and indeed in CIA documents you can see Estabrooks' theories worked out and discussed, but the genesis of the work begins in 1951 in the CIA Office of Security where an official named Morris Allen got the idea that CIA agents should be trained in hypnosis and in order to train them in hypnosis, he arranged with them to go up to New York and get training from a stage hypnotist. As soon as he and the agents got to New York, the stage hypnotist spent an hour and a half with them, regaling them with tales of hypnotic seduction - of how when the hypnotist went on the road, the he would sleep with a different woman each night - some of them he would give hypnotic hallucinations that he was their husband, others he would use other techniques - but this was a technique he had found very productive for his own sexual favours. The CIA was of course delighted to hear all of this and reported so in the documents. If he could use the technique to manipulate people that way, this was what they wanted to learn and so that's how they got trained.

Then from 2-3,000 pages of documentation going from 1951 to 1954 - Morse Allen and his group replicated all of the known hypnosis experiments involving people putting their hands in acid or jars of snakes, in shooting people dead, involving the French and Germans - there are all of those experiments American researchers, Estabrooks and others had conducted. But they (CIA) wanted to go further and explore the possibility of using hypnosis to create a programmed courier and a programmed assassin. The multiple personality itself may have come from Jekyll and Hyde which was very popular at the time. Another illustration of that idea in which two entirely different people can be within the same body - one being the embodiment of good, the other the embodiment of evil. It was good fiction, but it also was part of the genesis from Morton Prince's work. {slide: an Italian depiction of multiple personality - you can see the two faces pointing in other directions}

By the 1950's, the popular press was reporting in "The Three Faces of Eve", the existence of multiple personality - the three faces of course were more than three faces - and the final face was not the final face. Eve was Chris Sizemore finally telling the story with her real name and then telling it again in "A Mind of Her Own". Well, her mind may be her own, but her life isn't. She is now suing the film company which claims that the movie, "The Three Faces of Eve", means they own the story of her life. She claims they only own up to the time she had three faces, and that the other faces still belong to her. So she is still not in control of her identity and the fight goes on. [slide: here she is in person}

Sybil was then the next known or highly reported case of multiple personality disorder. Herb Spiegel tells me that Sybil was not a multiple, and that when he treated her in Cornelia Wilbur's absence, that Sybil never had any need to express any other personalities with Herb. Herb admits she was brilliant, and also extremely mentally ill, but that she was not a multiple, and he refused to participate in the writing or publishing of the book if that was the spin they were going to take on her case. On the other hand Herb believes that multiples exist, but that the condition is extremely rare and so people have argued that she was smart enough to know he wouldn't believe it, and therefore smart enough to know to conceal the personalities so the debate goes on.

The use of hypnosis to create multiple personalities and in general for intelligence purposes appears in a number of confidential secret documents just a few of which I will throw up on the screen. Some stories have leaked out about how the CIA hid it, and they didn't tell anybody about it. It's very simple. The CIA explodes the old theory of hypnotic moral curb. They came to the conclusion that people can be induced to do things that would violate their moral codes, and the folklore that you can't get people to do things against their will was simply untrue, and they carried those experiments further in to study ways to create unwitting killers. CIA documents tell of a 1954 project to create involuntary assassins. This is the end product of Morse Allen's work. By 1954 he had exploded the moral code theory; he had replicated all of the experiments of hypnotic coercision; and had conducted other experiments on his own, but all of these were in fact laboratory type experiments. He wanted to do more and see whether operational use could be put to these principles. His group prepared a film called, "THE BLACK ART". In the film, an "Oriental Character" is having a drink with an American agent. A drug is surreptitiously placed in the drink that causes the Oriental man to fall asleep. While dozing, he is hypnotized and programmed. The CIA had already experimented on hypnotizing people in sleep conditions and so forth. The next scene shows the Oriental man opening a safe that contains secret files. He removes the files and brings them to an American agent who reinforces the hypnotic suggestion. At this point, there is a voiceover by a narrator who asks, "Could what you have seen been accomplished without the individual's knowledge? Yes. Against the individual's will? Yes. With complete amnesia of performing the act? Yes. How? Through the powers of suggestion and hypnosis."

Again by 1954, Morse Allen was pushing hard to have operational tests of the thesis that you could construct a multiple personality and have that personality commit crimes, come back, and have no knowledge in the host that that act had been committed. In other words, The Manchurian Candidate scenario had been worked out by the CIA five years before the novel was published.

But would it work? In order to know whether it worked, you had to conduct what Morse Allen called "terminal experiments". These were experiments that could result in the death of the subject. The CIA gave clearance for those experiments to be done and in reference to one researcher who was asked if he would participate in them, he said, "if you set up terminal experiments, I will do them for free." By 1954, the literature demonstrates that Morse Allen's concerns had reached the higher levels of the CIA and that they were willing to engage in a field test for the Manchurian Candidate type scenario. By January, 1954, an ARTICHOKE memo says, "Could an individual of a certain descent be made to perform an act of attempted assassination involuntarily under the influence of ARTICHOKE?" Then later in the memo it says, as a trigger mechanism for an even bigger project, the CIA proposed that, "an individual of a certain descent, approximately 35 years old, well educated, proficient in English, and well established socially and politically in a foreign government be induced under ARTICHOKE to perform an act involuntarily of attempted assassination against a prominent foreign politician or if necessary, against an American official."

It was clear then, by summer of 1954, that the ARTICHOKE team said we can create an artificial personality, program that personality to conduct an assassinatiion, that assassination would occur. If in fact the individual was captured, he would never reveal the knowledge that he had engaged in the assassination, the host would know nothing about the alter, the amnesia would be impenetrable, and even under torture the host would not reveal the secrets. CIA research in many universities around the country explored topics such as programming people by way of telephone, whether somebody could answer a telephone, a secret word would be given, they would slip automatically into a trance, nobody around them would know they were in trance, they wouldn't know they were in trance, so forth. Experiments on pain, experiments on creating unconscious recorders, experiments were done on whether people would commit suicide under hypnotic instructions, and so on. Albert Mole had written one hundred years ago that it would be possible to give people hypnotic instructions to have them commit suicide. These were the subjects of CIA experiments. What ultimately happened, we don't know because the government files closed up at the point of reporting on the assassination attempts. But a year later, in May, 1955, a top secret report called "Hypnotism and Covert Operations begins with the following paragraph:

"Frankly I now mistrust much of was written by academic experts on hypnotism, partly because this is because many of them seem to have generalized from a very few cases, and partly because much of their cautious pessimism is contradicted by Agency experimenters. But more particularly because I have personally witnessed behavior responses which experts have said are impossible to obtain." By l954, the Manchurian Candidate scenario had already been thought of and was already under operational testing.

This is Richard Condon who wrote The Manchurian Candidate, as Walter Bowart discovered when he wrote him, he had no idea he was writing fact. He thought he was writing fiction. The only case that has come out of the literature that suggests that someone may have been an experimental subject is the control of Candy Jones. Candy was quite a beautiful woman, second only to Betty Grable. She was a pin-up girl during WWII, but her artificial personality, Arlene Grant, was programmed by the CIA according to the book to be a hypnotic courier and she was sent around the world, and occasiionally captured and tortured. Her last instruction was to have a two week vacation in Berlin and then jump off a cliff. It did not happen because her husband, John Neville, who was a very famous all night disc jockey in New York and an amateur hypnotist, shortly after they were married began to feel he had actually married two different women and could not account for the mood swings and the differences in personality. Using hypnosis with her, this story unravelled. Candy was sent to Herb Speigel for evaluation. Herb did a work-up on her using the hypnotic induction profile and other tests, and found she was very very high in the positive. And while he couldn't conclude that what she was saying was true, he could conclude that it would be true with her if it were true. In other words, she was the kind of person that this manipulation would have worked with. The Candy Jones story, which we cannot validate and we cannot invalidate ... I have seen a CIA file marked "Grant", but I have not been able to get the contents. It may be true, it may not be true. But the story about hypnotically programming couriers and assassins clearly is true. That book was published before the CIA documents were made available.

All of this of course violates the Nuremburg Standards but those Standards have had no application in covert activities. We found a document from the Attorney General of the United States to the Director of Central Intelligence which said '... if any of your agents are caught during their work, they will not be prosecuted for crimes' and therefore there is essentially the 007 license to kill that CIA agents will not be prosecuted for their crimes, therefore Nuremburg Standards do not apply.

It wasn't until the Nelson Rockefeller Report to the President in June, 1975 that we had any inkling about this material and then basically just a paragraph or maybe even a sentence mentioning mind and behavior control sent researchers looking for the files. In his testimony before Congress Stansfield Turner corroborated the existence of the mind control programs.

Some people wrote about them at the time. Peter Watson's book (from England) "The Military Uses and Abuses of Psychology" touch on but do not give in any detail the experiments done by the CIA and Army, but do talk in general about the use of psychology for military purposes. The classic works are of course, Walter Bowart's book, "Operation Mind Control" which is hard to find, and a collector's item, an extremely important book. John Marks' book, "The Search for the Manchurian Candidate", and my book, "The Mind Manipulators" -- these were the only three books to appear on the subject of mind and behavior control by the CIA and the Army experimental programs.

I want to move the story forward some more, from the CIA experiments in the 1950's into the 1960's and beyond. The 1960's brought us a new variation in operational utilization of the techniques of brainwashing and sensory deprivation and so forth that had been explored in the 1940's and especially in the 1950's, and this is the religious cult issue. This is Steve Hassam's book, "Combatting Cult Mind Control" - there is a revised edition available for sale, probably the best of the deprogramming books on mind control. But it was in the 1960's that the idea of using these techniques on essentially freestanding populations was experimented with and the cults provide the laboratory setting for social influence processes where the people are not taken into complete physical custody. 

The cults themselves represent, I think, the step from the laboratory experiments into real world operational use and then beyond them, there are books like "Mindbending on Cult Deprogramming". Then we move into the books on satanism and programming. This one I think is available for sale ... "Satan's Children", linking the multiple personalities with satanism. Can we prove this? Where do we stand with our knowledge of satanism?

Speaking as a lawyer, it's going to be very rough going to prove a widespread, intergenerational network of satanic cults in court. Part of the reason for that is the report issued, "In Pursuit of Satan", by Ken Lanning FBI, who has concluded that though instances of satanic abuse do exist, there is no evidence to support intergenerational, widespread, multinational networks of satanic abuse. Also, within the next two months, the most major study in the country on this issue will reach the same conclusions as Ken Lanning. And that report is due in about two months. But the tentative conclusion which will be the final conclusion, will be that Lanning's perception is correct. That the evidence does not exist for intergenerational satanic cults. Now, the methodology can be challenged, in any event the question of whether therapists who work with people who claim to be abused in satanic cults should be sued, is a separate issue from what can be proven.

Is it reasonable for you to believe that widespread satanic abuse occurs? The answer to that I think, is yes. Despite the Lanning Report and despite the conclusion that will come out later on, it is your job to believe your patients, at least within the therapy setting, and if they say it happened, then you work effectively with them by believing that it happened. It's when there is a real world corollary that the trouble begins. 

I am using my lawyer hat now. Do not tell your patients to go out and sue their parents or sue other people. Do not tell them to give newspaper accounts and so on, and to protect yourself in your clinical notes, say that this is the story your patient told, you have no way of knowing whether it is true or not, in any event, that's not your function. Your function is to make the person whole with whatever material they present to you. 

As long as you do not advise that they do not go out and sue other people, you can advise them to seek legal help if they say, "should I sue?" You say, "that's not my job, I am not a lawyer ... you should go to a lawyer and see what the lawyer thinks ... I will support you in this session whatever you decide to do ... but what you decide to do in the outside world is a decision that must be made by you and other professionals, not by me." 

As long as you do that, there should be no legal liability. If your patient sues you for believing all the crap that you are being told, in your notes somewhere should be "it's not my job to evaluate the historical validity of this information, but I will work with it as if it is true, because for my client at this point in time it is true." That should protect you.

There are isolated instances, there is also a large accumulation of information from local police departments who are not as influencable as the FBI - the FBI did deny the existence of the Mafia - when I went to an FBI friend of mine who oversees the Behavioral Science program there - I said why does the FBI deny the existence of widespread satanism - he looked at me and said they also denied the existence of the Mafia. Their conclusions can be rebutted in court by a lot of data from local police that have found ritualistic killings. The book "Mortal Remains" is an illustration of a case in Massachusetts where the bones were found where a satanic cult was practicing ritual murder. There are instances in which it can be proven. 

The existence of satanism is provable for over many centuries and the existence of cults and mind control programming is provable beyond question. For therapists to believe that there are some cults that are satanic is true, to believe that those satanic cults may be more widespread than we think or thought beforehand is reasonable, to believe that they engage in a bunch of horrendous practices - look what the Nazi experimenters did and look what Ewen Cameron did and how can you say there is a limit on human depravity? It is not unreasonable to believe that these kinds of things can occur, and in any event, when you work with trauma, you work more effectively by believing the story that it has come from.

Let's go further. In breaking bodies and minds, the role of psychiatric abuse and mental health professionals in creating torture victims and mind control victims is discussed - the complicity between torturers and professionals who help them to torture has been documented - this is the Irving Janus report from 1949 that validated the use of hypnosis as part of conditioning techniques being used by the Soviets; Rand report in 1958 again reaches the same conclusions; the involvement of hypnosis and other forms of programming - the book "Why Men Confess" is written by a former Assistant Attorney General of the United States, traces modern mind control back to the Malleus Maleficorum through the Moscow Show Trials and other places. It's a good legitimate source for understanding the modern "False Memory" stuff which I will get to right now.

There has been only one completely litigated case involving false memory. Can you implant false memories? Of course. We knew that 100 years ago. We have come a long way since then as you can see in this talk. 

This is Eileen Franklin and her daughter - this case is the only criminal case that has gone to trial in which repressed memory played a major role. She claimed that her father killed her friend, Susan Nasen. The story that Eileen Franklin tells us, that she was looking into her daughter's eyes one day and suddenly the image of watching her father kill her friend Susan (when Susan was 8 years old twenty years earlier) came into her mind, and then the memories started to flood back about that experience. {This is her father when he was arrested. Take a good look at him. Here is at trial on the right.} You learn a lesson about lawyering. That's his lawyer on the left. You clean up the client. You don't bring him into court looking like that ... you bring him in looking like that - on the right. You can introduce pictures but it is not as powerful as the present appearance.

The Franklin case is a very troubling one, and we have to be very honest about that because we are first and foremost scientists, and unlike the False Memory, do not need to have a political agenda here. 

Eileen Franklin is a liar. She told four different stories about the genesis of her memory one of which was that she was hypnotized in therapy. If that story were true, she would have been disqualified as a witness in California courts. When she learned that, or we hypothesize that when she learned that, she went back to her brother and said I told you I had been hypnotized. Forget that. That's tampering with evidence. She told actually four different stories about how she recovered her memories, and that's grounds to disbelieve her because there is clear evidence of lying in the way she presented herself. On the other hand the fact that she is a liar does not mean that the story she told is false. The False Memory make that assumption but that's bad logic. They may be right that she's a liar and her story is false, but you cannot make that jump as a logical matter. On the other hand her father is ... my first real knowledge of the case came from a cab ride with Beth Loftus on my left and David Spiegel on my right in Chicago when Beth and I were both plenary speakers at the ISSMPD in Chicago a few years back. Both of them had just come from testifying in the case, both of them testified against Eileen Franklin and each of them in the cab in my presence concluded that if her story were true, and it might be true, it would have been true of this man. This man physically abused his son and sexually molested his daughters. He had a violent past. It is well documented. When he was arrested he had a large collection of child pornography. He had an active correspondence to have sexual relations with their seven and eight year old daughters. He had pictures of those activities involving him.

Her memories may be true, and they may not be true. He is the kind of person it would be true of. It was independent physical corroboration of his pedophilia, of his violence, and the fact that this is the kind of man who would have committed that sadistic molesting and murder. It is the up to the jury then to decide if that evidence is enough. But her repressed memory was not the only basis of the testimony. The defence argued that everything she remembered was available in a newspaper somewhere. She had no independent memory of anything apart from what was in a newspaper somewhere and that point was made to the jury. The jury convicted, and Franklin, the father, is now in jail for life. The California courts have rejected his appeal and his lawyers have filed a motion in federal district court. They have imported Richard Ofshe, a specialist in social influence to work over the mother who testified against her husband in the trial and she has now changed her mind. Of course, this is not an unusual phenomenon. Now that he is in jail and she can have recriminations she might have changed her mind anyway, but the introduction of a social influence specialist with a political agenda to spend a lot of time with her to reach the certain conclusion, seems to me if there is a new trial is a point that will be raised at that new trial.

What I found very interesting is I interviewed the prosecutor, his lawyer, and his appellate lawyer and in their brief on appeal, the appellate lawyers wrote that ... no responsible person would believe that the concept of robust repression was false ... in other words the Ofshe/ Singer hypothesis that you cannot forget traumatic events over a sustained period of time and that it is the "scientific quackery of the twentieth century" is, in the opinion of these lawyers, irresponsible thinking, and I agree. The evidence shows that the Ofshe/Singer hypothesis is wrong. The evidence comes from biological studies of memory and how the brain processes traumatic memories differently than ordinary memories and it also explains how Loftus' research on normal memory is irrelevant to the issue of traumatic memory, a point which she is now reluctantly starting to recognize.

Is Eileen Franklin on trial? Is Freud dead? If you knock out the notion of robust repression as the False Memory people have been trying to do, you have a very simplistic idea. If a person can be repeatedly traumatized as a child, have no adult recollection of that trauma, go into therapy and then have a recollection, then the therapist must have implanted it if robust repression is not real ... So the existence of robust repression as the underpinning of the scientific foundation for the False Memory argument is quite crucial, but that argument is now shown to be scientifically invalid which doesn't mean that the False Memory position is wrong. They are right about what therapists should be doing and shouldn't be doing - on the issues of social influence procedures - but they are wrong about the robust repression. That means that somebody can go to a therapist and have that memory refreshed and that memory can be true

And then memory can be true. Which makes it a harder case, the world is no longer black and white. You cannot use the iatrogenic cause argument in every case of robust repression. The Father Porter cases are an illustration of robust repression, memories that were recovered without hypnotic intervention and in the absence of a therapeutic encounter. You may know the Father Porter story. My time is short, so I can't go through it with you now. In any event he recovered the memories of having been molested. He was able to validate those memories as to himself and Father Porter is now in jail having confessed to having molested between 50 and 100 young boys and girls. 

Mind control is real. It has a rich history. I have only given you a fraction of the history. We haven't touched on the physiological or pharmacological aspects. the behavior modification and conditioning techniques, or the social influence theories.  We have just concentrated on the psychological issues that are closer to the work that you will be doing.  

The existence of mind control is real.  So is its historical development in secret laboratories.  So are the secret experiments run by the CIA, the Army, and other military organizations.  The practice of mind control is spilling over spilling over into religious cult settings.  Its use in freestanding populations are all validated.  The available studies should give mind control the kind of respectability it deserves.  Hopefully this brief history will give you the background that you need to believe the kinds of stories that your patients are telling you as at least possible. Thank you.

<Go To The Original lecture Series Transcripts On the Internet>

--------------------------------------------------

You have been listening to a lecture by Dr. Alan Scheflin, "The History of Mind Control: What we can prove, and what we can't". CKLN 88.1 on this series on Mind Control. Next week we are going to be featuring an interview with Claudia Mullen, Valerie Wolf and Chris Ebner the day that they had given the mind control testimony to the President's Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments in March 1995. If you have missed any of the shows, stay tuned for this message and find out how you can remedy that. CKLN is rebroadcasting a ground-breaking radio series, Mind Control in Canada, currently airing on the Sunday morning show, The International Connection. Starting June 2nd on alternative radion, Monday nights from l0pm to llpm, the eight month radio series, Mind Control in Canada, will be aired. This series looks into the Canadian and U.S. government history of mind control experimentation, and particularly the experiments done to children in creating programmed multiple personalities by means of severe trauma and abuse. If allegations of the survivors are true, and what government documentation would point to, the leaders, intelligence agencies and militaries of North America have been using mind control for political, military and criminal purposes for decades. To hear interviews and lectures with survivors, researchers and therapists on this important topic, tune into CKLN 88.1 FM Monday evenings 10pm to 11pm for re-broadcasts or Sunday mornings, 9.30am to 10.30am for the breaking story on mind control.

<Go To The Original lecture Series Transcripts On the Internet>

Other Articles On Mind Control

First Earth Battalion
History of Mind Control
Mind Control
Project Monarch

GORSKI-CENAPS Books - www.relapse.org 
1-800-767-8181

Addiction - A Biopsychosocial Model

Denial Management Counseling (DMC)

Relapse Prevention Counseling (RPC)

Relapse Prevention Therapy (RPT)

Addiction-Free Pain Management (APM)

Food Addiction

Training & Consultation: www.tgorski.com, www.cenaps.com, www.relapse.org  Gorski-CENAPS, 17900 Dixie Hwy, Homewood, IL 60430, 708-799-5000 

Meet The GORSKI-CENAPS TEAM
Tresa Watson ----- Steve Grinstead ----- Arthur Trundy

 

Home - What's New - Site Map - Search Gorski's Site - Articles - Book Reviews

Mission & Vision - Training & Consultation Services - Publications - Links

Daily News Review  -  Addiction Databases  - Leading Addiction Websites

GORSKI-CENAPS Clinical Model --- Research-Based Best Practice Principles

Special Focus:  Mental Health, Substance Abuse, & Terrorism

Terry Gorski and Other Members of the GORSKI-CENAPS Team are Available To Train & Consult On Areas Related To Recovery, Relapse Prevention, & Relapse Early Intervention

Address: 6147 Deltona Blvd, Spring Hill, FL  34606
info@enaps.com; www.tgorski.com, www.cenaps.com, www.relapse.org